Friday, May 5, 2017

Day 11. Talk on Biometrics by Dr.Y.C.Kamala

The 11th day of ‘Bangalore Science Forum’ that is on the 5th of may 2017.. The talk of the day was given by DR.Y.C.kamala, an eminent Science resource person, she is the director of Annual Summer School in Science and also a faculty of the physics department of  National College Basavanagudi. She  widened our  knowledge horizon with a talk on BIOMETRICS. As all of us know  A journey of thousand miles begins with a single step. She took us step by step through the journey of BIOMETRICS ,beginning from the first step that is the definition of BIOMETRICS that “it is the automated use of behavioral and physiological characteristics to determine and verify an identity.” 
She took us through the wonderful evolution of BIOMETRICS. Right from the stage of signatures and fingerprints to the modern era of machineries, that is the machineries used in Aadhar Card works on the principles of BIOMETRICS ,she outlined BIOMETRICS as BIO meaning LIFE and METRICS  meaning MEASUREMENTS. She also described the need of Biometrics and the important role it Plays in the companies, Aadhar Offices etc. she sketched the need of BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION and glimpsed the FRAUDS IN THE INDUSTRY such as the frauds happening during the money transactions in ATMs  etc. she gave us a gist of the necessity of BIOMETRIC APPLICATION, its role in preventing the stealing of possessions that mark Authorized persons. 
She then distinguished between  IDENTIFICATION and AUTHENTICATION. That IDENTIFICATION determines the identity of a person whereas AUTHENTICATION determines whether the person is indeed the same person. And presented us the types of biometrics like Fingerprints, Face Recognitions, hand geometry, iris scan, voice scan, signatures, retina scan, odour, D.N.A etc. she gave us the types of fingerprints such as Arch, Loop,Whoorl. She acknowledged the desired properties such as UNIVERSALITY, COLLECTABILITY, UNIQUENESS, PERFORMANCE, USER’S ACCEPTABILITY etc she specified information concerning to MULTIMODEL BIOMETRICS and the PATTERN RECOGNITION CONCEPT she also described about  FAR-false acceptance rate and FAR-false acceptance rate. SO TOTALLY IT WAS A VERY INTERESTING AND A VERY INFORMATIVE TALK. 

Wednesday, May 3, 2017

Day 9: Visit to MAIYAS food products factory.

Visit to Maiyas food factory - Report by Surabhi Shastry

May 3rd, the ninth day of our exciting journey with the Bangalore Science Forum was yet another enlightening day for all of us.  We visited the Maiyas food factory located on Kanakapura Road. It was indeed an enriching opportunity because it is not everyday that we get a glimpse of the behind the scenes view of the hardwork that is put into serving traditional food at its purest and most sumptuous form.
Maiyas is a family business that runs on pure passion for good food. It is the vision of Dr. P. Sadananda Maiya, a pioneer in the Indian food industry.

The day began with excitement and enthusiasm. We reported at the factory at 9:30. Parents, who also were keen to explore the factory had accompanied their kids. We were given warm greetings by the senior employees of the factory who were there to give us a complete tour of the factory. After being divided into three groups, we were given instructions on the strict rules and regulations to be followed to maintain perfect hygiene. We were given masks, covers for our head and footwear to prevent our hair, bacteria and dust from contaminating the food.
The factory is ISO certified and therefore their production process is highly clean and sophisticated. Their excellent food products create demand from all over the world and therefore they export them to all corners of the world including USA, Japan, Australia, Singapore to name a few.
The range of products include beverages, frozen food, sweets, savouries, masalas, pickles, ready to eat and instant mixes.We were first taken to the savoury food production area. As we walked through  the corridor we could smell the sharp, spicy aroma of rich blended spices that tingled our olfactory senses. Our guide showed us the massive fryers which made our beloved crunchy everyday snacks like murukku, kodubale and bhakarwadi. The machines carried out all processes- from shaping the dough to evenly placing them on the conveyor belt, to frying them and cooling them. They fried it at the perfect temperature to let the oil seep through and crisp up the snack just right. In addition to using cholesterol-free oil to prepare products, their innovative technology extracts at least 30 per cent of the oil from the final product making it a healthier option
The spices were stored in a lower floor and were brought up through a vacuum geyser. Depending on whether the mixture had to be pure or blended, required amounts of ingredients were extracted and transported to a storage machine. These spices were then passed through a pin mill which made the mixture coarse. The resulting mixture was then passed through a roller mill to make it fine. The powder was ground according to the food it would be incorporated in. The powder was then thoroughly mixed and later taken for packaging. The special thing about the production was that they made it in such a way that moisture was completely evaporated from the spices so as to preserve them for a longer period of time.Maiyas asserts that one must know the exact proportion, quality and purity of each ingredient, and adjust these proportions accordingly so as to ensure consistent quality. Even the preparation of the ingredients makes a difference.The vibrant hue and the whiff of these spices was a treat.
Packaging involved two types of machines. One, the FFS(form fill seal) machine which filled food into a roll of packing material and then was sealed at intervals to make a series of adjoining packets. The other one was the PSF(Pouch Fill Seal) machine. Individual packets were opened, filled and sealed by this machine. It was a very knowledgeable experience to watch how our everyday snacks packets were made. A very distinct observation we made was that the hygiene was maintained every step of the way. It assured us of the safety of the food that we eat. Food is truly made with love in this food haven.
The instant food division consisted of 1 minute express rasam powder blocks which came in three flavours. All you needed  to do was put it in boiling water and it would turn into the tasty rasam we all love. The bhel bars and fruit bars were also manufactured there. All these were made in such a way that they could be preserved for a long time.
The sweets manufactured include soan-papdi and jamun, two mouth-watering sweets made from the best of the best ingredients that Maiyas handpicked for these delicacies loved by all. Soan papdi is made from two core ingredients- sugar candy and gram flour mixture. They are vigorously stretched until fine threads arise. Jamun is made from scratch and canned.
Milk beverages are also made here using purified, lab tested and approved milk. They are canned and placed in retorts. This heats them to kill all the harmful microbes. The specific processes are heating, preheating, cooling and killing.
Frozen foods are the most exported. They have all kinds of traditional, Indian, homely food which are packed in such a way that they can last for upto two years. The food is passed through spiral freezers which can go down to a temperature of -35 degree Celsius. The frozen food is then stored in a storage unit with a very low temperature.
The main warehouse was completely packed with crates of packed food ready to be shipped.
We were then taken to the laboratory which was also where all the research and development took place. This was the place where every single raw material and product was tested for regulative values. If the product did not meet all the requirements, the product was either held or rejected and discarded. Intensive research goes in to making the product so that it reaches us fresh every time, with the aid of world-class technology.
Next, we were escorted to much awaited part of the day- lunch  at the one and only Maiyas factory. Food for the employees was served everyday and on this day, we were given the privilege of tasting original Maiyas freshly prepared food. Food was traditional, sumptuous, fragrant and wholesome.
All in all this was an eye opener to the world of food production where they use technology optimally at every juncture of food production to bring alive the authentic traditional taste, with faster turnarounds.

Tuesday, May 2, 2017

Day 8:Visit to IIIT-B

Report  by group-8


In Sanskrit , a saying goes......
“vidhyarthinah tyajeth sukham .
Sukharthinah tyajeth vidhyam.”

This means the ones who want to gain knowledge have to leave aside all the pleasures and the ones who want to indulge in worldly pleasures would never gain knowledge.
The visit to IIIT-B (International Institute of Information Technology) was really eye opening and exciting.We gathered at IIIT-b with lots of curiosity .A group photo was taken and then we were led to the seminar hall by the volunteers from IIIT.
The program was anchored by Prof.Dinesh. Dr. S.Sadagopan, the director of the institute addressed us. He gave interesting anecdotes and enlightened us about India's position in the IT field.He said IT is India's Tomorrow. This really motivated us towards IT field. Then there was a very informative talk about IM.Tech course by Prof. Madhava Rao. Then there was a very informative talk on electronics by Prof.Chethan. 

After tea, the sessions continued. We had a very exciting and enthralling talk by Prof.Sujith Chakraborti about the difficulties of software development. The last and most educative talk was by Prof.Amit prakash about IT and society.We also saw some vedios on IIIT-B and  about how IIIT students have made robots and other scientific models.Another   interesting video was   “A day made of glass” which showcased how our near future would be with the help of information technology.  After the seminar we had lunch.

Soon after the lunch we were shown some interesting robots ,like the one which could detect  the black line and move accordingly ,and we were also shown another robot which could clean the house and it had a peculiar feature that when it bumps into any obstacle then it changes its direction .       After than we were shown 3D printing in which the plastic was used up to a 3D object, and its motto was “ you design, we create “.They had made many such   3D objects like Eiffel tower, the layers of earth , a man ,and many others.     After that again a group photo was taken .We all learnt of how vast IT is and how we can explore it. We being  India’s tomorrow have to realize this.

Monday, May 1, 2017

Day 7: Visit to NIMHANS

Day 7 : 1st May , 2017

       Today we all were eagerly waiting to explore the NIMHANS Brain Museum . It was held in 2 sessions namely girls session ( from 9:30 AM to 12:30 PM ) and boys session ( from 2:00 PM to 4:00 PM ). Everyone were quite interested to know about our Brain.
        The session was headed by Dr.Anitha Mahadevan and Team Prof.Department of Neuropathy , NIMHANS , Banglore.
         The class started with a small introduction about evolution of human brain . Then we got to see the specimens' of brains' of cow, hen, snake, owl, partot, etc. It was quite suprising to see the brain of the foetus!
 Dr.Anitha explained the complexity in the structure of the brain among different animals . Then there was a brief discussion about human brain and its parts .The discussion continued regarding the functions of each part of the brain . We were surprised to know that each and every part of the brain has a specific function !

 Then came the terrible topic -  'The Brain Diseases'. There are absolutely many number of diseases from which a man can suffer from . Some of the diseases like Meningitis , Mucornycosis are caused by fungi . Viruses cause a disease called Encephalitis . Some diseases are genetically acquired too. We could see the specimens' of these brain disorders in museum .
          There had always been a talk that the government hospitals usually go for CT Scan over MRI because it is cheap . It is actually not true .CT Scan combines a series of X-Ray images taken from different angles whereas the MRI shows abnormal tissue clearly . So ,it is not the cost ,it is actually the diordet which decides which test is to be done.
            You do hav to bilieve me now.In the next session we got to touch the brain, kidneys, heart and interstine...! It was a lifetime opportunity . Mam then explained more about the brain by showing the neurons in the brain.
             Overall it was a complete knowledgeable and funfilled day.

-By Kavitha MS
       (Group 7 , BSF Summer School ,2017)

Saturday, April 29, 2017

Day 6: Biology Hands Activity

Day 6 : 29th april 2017 Report by Gaganashri.

     Today was an interesting and informative class. We all were eagerly waiting as we were informed by our teacher that today would be 'hands on activity' session.
   Before starting that session, Kamala mam gave us the glimpse of details regarding the field visits which will be held on the coming days. Although we were thrilled to know more, we moved on to welcome today's resource person Prof. Ramesh [HOD of Zoology] and Vishwanath [Vice principal of National College, Basavanagudi].
  We were soon divided into several groups and moved to Zoology lab. It was Prof.Ramesh 's lecture which allowed us to get into the world of 'BLOOD'. We learnt about the discovery of ABO blood. It is believed that ABO blood was discovered by Karl Landsteiner in 1901.

  We got to know many things. I have tried to summarise the lecture using the following sub heads:
• Discovery of blood
• Composition of blood
• Functions of blood which includes      Transportation, Protection, Regulation etc.
• Contents of blood
• Staining of blood cells i.e. Wright's stain
• Blood transfusion
• Cardiovascular system
• Lymphatic system
• Circulatory system
• Formed elements
• Erythrocytes, Leukocytes
• Blood group inheritance
• Functions of Lymphocytes
• Identification of blood group
• Rh grouping system
• Blood cell compatibility
   After covering all of the above topics, it was time to perform an activity which helped us to identify our blood group. Prof. Ramesh taught us to perform this activity. He also performed the same activity and identified the correct blood group of one of my friend. We all were actually surprised to know that our blood group could be identified in such a simple way.
  Then, we also got to know about some rear blood groups like Bombay blood, its disorders, OH blood group and we also got to know how the name Bombay blood was actually originated.
   After this, we were into 'Zoology museum'. We got a great opportunity to look into many specimens which included foetus, embryo, octopus, molluscs, different arthropods, amphibians and models of skeleton, human brain, sheep brain etc.
  We were soon shifted into Botany lab. This class was taken by Mr. Vishwanath. We were very happy to hear his lecture as he explained us in the most simple and detailed way. In his class we learnt about plant anatomy, monocot and dicot plant, xylem, phloem etc. We were even taught how to identify whether the given plant has monocot or dicot plant. He explained this with a very interesting and simple lab activity. According to that experiment, we should observe the temporary mount of a stem under microscope. If the vascular tissues are arranged radially, it indicates that the given stem is dicot stem. If the vascular tissues are scattered, it indicates that the stem belongs to monocot plant.
    This is just a small summary that i have tried to note it down. But, science is a very vast subject which includes observation, analysation, experimentation etc.
   However, it is rightly said by Oscar Wilde that "Success is a science; if you have the conditions, you get the result".

Friday, April 28, 2017

Day 5: Visit to JNCASR

This is GROUP 5 from the Bangalore science forum summer school(2017).Our report is regarding the field visit to JAWAHARALAL NEHRU CENTRE FOR ADVANCED SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH.It is a multidisciplinary research institute situated in Jakkur, a locality in the  north of Bangalore, India. It is relatively young yet well-known around the Globe. This Centre was established in 1989 by the Department of Science and Technology of the Government of India, to mark the birth centenary of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. Researchers at the Centre are divided into nine units: Chemistry and Physics of Materials, Educational Technology, Engineering Mechanics, Evolutionary and Integrative Biology, Geo-dynamics, Molecular Biology and Genetics, New Chemistry, Neuroscience, Theoretical Sciences.

We were fortunate enough to get an opportunity  to visit this wonderful institution.This visit was initiated by Dr.Y.C.Kamala ma'am and team.We had to assemble at the college by 7:45AM and departed approximately by 8:30 , we reached the venue by 9:15-30AM. It was a short fuzzy travel by bus.As we got down our buses the sight was completely unusual and very new to us.We were asked to be seated in a hall for the lecture which was given by Chandrabas Narayana. His lecture was about Light and Matter.At the beginning he asked us a few questions like:-
  • What happens when light falls on a material ?
  • Why are sky and sea blue ?
  • How do we see things ?
He briefly explained properties such as reflection,refraction,transmission,luminescence,absorption,inelastic scattering,elastic scattering of light.He explained the Raman Effect discovered by C.V.Raman and his student Krishnan which is the change of wavelength exhibited by some of the radiation scattered in a medium.After the lecture we were taken to the various laboratories present in the research centre. We visited about 8 laboratories and curiously gazed at those equipments present in the labs. The Laboratories which we visited are as follows :-
·         TEM(Transmission Electron Microscope)-It is an electron microscope which is very huge and complicated .It has a capacity to view upto 1.7 Angstrom, this microscope can fetch images by passing electrons through the specimen at high velocities by applying a potential difference from 300-400Kv.
·         SEM(Scanning Electron Microscope)-This microscope was similar to the TEM but could fetch resolutions only upto 60-70nM.We saw images of various specimens including insects,metals,etc.
·         Human Tissue culture -This lab was the place where human tissues were cultured in a sterile environment such that there is no disruption in the growth of tissue .This lab could be entered by very few authorized people and the room was connected to air purifiers such that there is no infection.
·         HIV-AIDS Lab -This Laboratory was mainly designed to find cure for the deadly disease AIDS caused by HIV virus. This lab consisted centrifugal machines ,Incubators, Refrigerators, DNA and Bacterial cells.
·          Dispersion of Light – Here the Raman’s Effect was experimentally proved by a laser and various instruments. Here we could see different wavelenghts of light.
·         FESCM:- Here researchers made various equipments for devices which had to be done in a very sterile environment where even sunlight was filtered through films and the person who entered this lab had to wear a lab suit and had to undergo a sterile shower which would kill all the bacteria on the body.
·         Photo-electronics:- Here we got to know about various gadgets internal display , How it was made and what additions could be done to improve it and what adverse effects these modern gadgets caused our human body.
·         Nano-Particles Lab:- This place was all about Nano-particles and its properties.Each substance at its Nano size had different properties like as everyone know gold is yellow in colour whereas at its nano-liquid state it is brown in colour and this could be engineered to enter our body and the particular part to kill the cancer cells.
These were the laboratories which we visited at Jawaharlal Nehru Centre For Advanced Scientific Research .It was a very interesting tour towards modern science and technology. It lit up our mind and brought enthusiasm towards science and technology.We thank the Bangalore Science Forum for providing us such an opportunity.
                                                  THANK YOU
Group 5 : -
Sathya Skanda B M
Anand Theertha

Thursday, April 27, 2017

Day:4: Mathematics Activity

This is the report of day 4 by group 4-Tushar U and group.

Mrs. Kamala ma'am introduced Dr. Srivatsa. S. K, an expert in the field of electronics. Then Dr. Srivatsa began to interact with the students by first asking them to solve a  few puzzles. Sir then asked the students to solve an anagram. The students could solve both of these in a jiffy. Sir then told us about the topics that he would discuss during the day like electronics,magnetism and fluids. He then told us that one should explain a concept in a small time with simplicity.He showed many quotes of many famous scientists such as Newton, Galileo amd Einstein. 

He said that while approaching science, one should have curiosity, clarity, competence and connectivity. The students were listening to him with rapt attention. Sir said that these approaches had different effects such as observation, experimentation, modelling.  talked about the observations of Galileo Kepler and Rutherford. Sir showed us a very interesting clip, showing what happens when two objects of the same masses are left to fall from the same height in a vacuum chamber. The result was that both the two objects fall down and the same time.  He explained to us the result of the clip.He explained to us the Rutherford's experiment showing the deflection of Alpha particles.

 He then told that we were going to conduct some activities. All of us were excited. The first activity involve the use of a rubber band in which we needed to stretch the rubber band and place it on our lips. We then felt some heat on our lips due to the stretching of the bonds between the carbon atoms in the rubber band which released energy in the form of heat. We then released the stretch rubber bands and placed it on our lips. The observation was that our lips felt cool. 

Sir then spoke about Coulomb's laws. He then spoke about electricity and Magnetism. He then demonstrated an experiment with the help of one of his students. This experiment involved a Tesla coil in which he brought a tubelight close to the Tesla coil and the tube light started to grow immediately. This blew our minds. He then asked us to feel the heat at the tip of the tesla coil one by one. Dr.Srivatsa then demonstrated an experiment which involved a robot which follows a line.Dr.Srivatsa then demonstrated an experiment based on the topic Home Automation in which the switching on and off of the lights in a house can be controlled with the help of a mobile . The intensity of the light could also be controlled with the help of the mobile.